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  • 05/15/15--08:23: VoIP Wholesale
  • Wholesale VoIP Market:

    There is no doubt today that VoIP is taking over the telecom market, and every month increases penetration into services and industries. Competitive carriers are looking at the numerous ways to make money from this exploding technology, but there's a lingering question as to whether it is profitable to deliver VoIP in a wholesale model? Their customers, typically Service Providers, are looking for their ‘competitive advantage' into this ‘lowest price' race, leveraging within three key alternatives for packet telephony : “build” , “buy” or “rent”. Business aspect, there’s no need to invest tens of millions of dollars in wholesale VoIP to join in. Many Telecom Companies have done the work for you. They offer a complete, turnkey VoIP business service and equipment. Now you can start wholesale VoIP business with virtually no investment and yet reap great dividends.

    Wholesale VoIP Resellers:

    In today’s world, Service providers seeking to deliver VoIP to as wide a customer base as possible may find that becoming a wholesale VoIP reseller is the way to go. Wholesale VoIP may be sold to both other service providers and to enterprises or residential customers.

    Reselling IP telephony as a wholesale VoIP company is becoming an increasingly popular business model. For many companies, becoming a wholesale VoIP provider hits the sweet spot between profit and market control. Any firm with a well-established customer base is a good candidate for reselling wholesale VoIP.
    Becoming a wholesale VoIP reseller is not a decision that should be taken lightly. It does, however, offer the potential of being very lucrative if done right.

    Wholesale Consumer Demand:

    An important characteristic of the industry is the complex segmentation of consumer demand and rapid change in the characteristics that are being demanded, both at the end customer and in the intermediate ones (wholesale customers).
    Demand coming from ‘packed customers'? will be significantly different of the conventional telecommunications one, were telephony was the unique service to provide and differentiation was based on tariff-distance paradigm, being today's service offerings closer to data applications rather than telephony. Voice communication (and not old POT telephony) becomes the common feature into several communications applications and devices, but not the unique one.
    Messaging, conference, collaboration, web contact centres, etc … requires a common communication format between parties, which is voice, implemented through VoIP technologies. Heterogeneous and rapidly changing customer demands and products are important dynamic influences on the evolving structure of the telecom industry, resulting into a new value-chain.
    Telecommunication markets evolution will be driven by ‘packed customers' demand rather than networks, technology or finance, changing many decades rules into this industry.

    Finance in Telecommunication Industry:

    Finance institutions had been influencing Telecomm Industry since the beginning, due the business itself was characterized by huge investments, big market shares and bigger capitalization, influencing in many cases top management, who addressed their strategy towards ‘stock' opportunities rather long term and solid business models. WorldCom crash has been an example of this ‘financial market' pressure and wrong business management.
    Today, the networks has been deployed. New scenario in Telecoms enable new players to deploy services over broadband without proprietary network and this new generation business will not be anymore capital intensive, let's say these will be innovation intensive.

    U.S. VoIP Market:

    The US market for VoIP advanced dramatically in 2006-2007, adding 3.8 million VoIP households in 2006, reports In-Stat: As a result, wholesale VoIP revenues grows quickly, as MSOs, Skype, and a myriad of new entrants most lacking network facilities enter the market and drive demand for telephony features and applications, the high-tech market research firm says.
    As retail VoIP expands, wholesale VoIP will accelerate quickly, says Bryan Van Dussen, In-Stat analyst. The largest segment remains international VoIP, but we expect the market for local services to surge from 12% of all revenues to 27% by 2010.
    Recent research by In-Stat found the following:

    • Consumer VoIP adoption will drive wholesale VoIP revenues to $3.8 billion by 2010 from $1.1 billion in 2006.
    • In-Stat finds small businesses are driving the growth of hosted services in the U.S. Hosted VoIP seats in the U.S. ...

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    Business VoIP Providers - Compare and Choose a Business VoIP Provider

    Quality business VoIP providers today offer a wide variety of feature packages, services and prices. Selecting the ideal provider and service options will depend on your type and size of business, features needed and projected volume of usage. Even when working with top-tier providers, your basic monthly service charges per line may begin at rates as low as $20. Before choosing your VoIP provider, it is essential to first determine your company's precise telecommunications needs to enable timely and cost-efficient initiation of your service. By consulting your chosen Voice over IP service team and seeking their expert advice in advance, you can be prepared to take the following steps to facilitate the smooth, productive startup of your services:

    • Evaluate Your Internet Connection. - Determine the strength and capacity of your Internet connection and bandwidth. You need to ensure that your system has adequate speed to best accommodate your new VoIP installation for top quality service.
    • Assess Your Company Budget and Needs. - With knowledge of your company's current budget and VoIP needs, you can more easily select the service provider and feature options that meet your requirements.
    • Determine Your Equipment Needs. - Evaluate your current and near future VoIP equipment needs. Phones can be purchased from around $50 to $500 or more. Once you decide which feature options are immediate requirements and which ones can be added later as needed, you are ready to choose your service provider.
    • Compare VoIP Providers. - By comparing VoIP company service options, advanced features and equipment along with user and industry reviews, you can best make a wise decision, selecting the ideal VoIP provider for your enterprise.

    Important Information to Request from Any Potential VoIP Provider

    Before signing a service contract with any business VoIP provider, be sure to request basic service information and practices in writing. You need to be certain of such details as startup costs and monthly fees, any limitations and costs on portable phone numbers and exactly which features are included in the service package you select. You also need to know if international calling is included, charges for adding extra features and the extent of customer care and technical services provided. Also important are such issues as whether your provider offers a money back guarantee and if there are any cancellation fees. It is also helpful to determine prior to signing up for VoIP services if there are any hidden fees assessed by your chosen provider.

    Take Full Control and Advantage of Your VoIP System

    Once your new business VoIP system and service are in place, you and your staff members will have full-control capabilities for use of your business communications system. Your service provider will ensure connection with your online portal for customizing your telecomm options. These modern digital portals are user-friendly, enabling feature changes and additions to be made for immediate availability. You and your staff can make decisions and changes in real-time that work for you right in the moment.

    You can manage your call settings remotely, directing calls to voicemail or having them transferred to another number or extension. You can also make exceptions to any chosen setting in your phone system. For example, if you are expecting an important business call and want to take that call, but hold all other calls for a few hours, you can set your phone to direct only the designated call to ring on your extension. This system allows and encourages you to take complete control of your telecommunications systems and settings so that the service works for your best interests and immediate needs at all times.

    Major Business Benefits and Advantages of Installing VoIP

    With an excellent quality VoIP system installed and running well in your company offices to provide remote access for you and your employees, you can work much more efficiently, achieving more in less time. You will enjoy the many benefits of knowing that you can leave the responsibility of your advanced office telecommunications system operations to your VoIP provider while you handle other important business matters. Other major benefits and advantages of your new business VoIP system enable you to accomplish the following:

    • Schedule Your Own Business Hours. ...

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    The upgrade is fairly smooth, and there's lots of new features. It's the deprecated stuff that bites you during the migration process.

    Start the migration with reading UPGRADE.txt, and then look at the CHANGES file for details that were introduced with 1.4.0.

    Make sure to read the new xxx.conf.sample files. That way you may detect new features/options that not seldomly also fix potential security issues.


    For sure you will want to have "internal_timing=yes"!


    Hurray, you may now monitor the call park and Meet conference with hint, use "Meetme:1234" or "park:701@parkedcalls"!
    Call pickup has changed, in particular you really must take a look at PICKUPMARK.

    A line starting with ;-- (semicolon immediately followed by two dashes) is now treated as opening a multi-line comment, so be aware! You might disable the entirety of what is remaining in your dialplan from this point on.

    Changes to watch out for:
    • Calling a voicemail box with flags for busy or unavailable (options b and u) must now be performed with a pipe as opposed to prepending that option to the mailbox number: "b1234" or "u4567" turns into "1234|b" and "4567|u"
    • SIP_HEADER() with (Via) now needs to be written as (Via,1) in Asterisk 1.4
    • LookupCIDName is deprecated. Please use the much more beautiful and easy-to-read Set(CALLERID(name)=${DB(cidname/${CALLERID(num)})}) instead. Note that this must now typically be combined with a conditional statement like ExecIf() if you want to keep the current CallerID name in case the AstDb does not have (better) information on this caller.

    Many similar changes for variables are described in ugprade.txt:
    • change ${TIMESTAMP} variable to ${STRFTIME(${EPOCH},,%Y%m%d-%H%M%S)} function
    • change ${CALLERIDNUM} variable to ${CALLERID(num)} function


    • In the [general] section "port=" has been renamed to "bindport=" to prevent misunderstandings
    • The default for QoS settings has changed from the old TOS to the new DiffServ method. This also applies to iax.conf, by the way.
    • with the new subscribemwi=yes we can finally instruct Asterisk to not send what some SIP devices consider as unsolicited NOTIFY messages (AVM Fritz!Box, Siemens Gigaset and others). This prevents SIP ERROR 481 or "Remote host cannot match NOTIFY"

    BLF and hints

    • you will need to set "call-limit=" to make hints (SIP SUBSCRIPTIONS) work in Asterisk 1.4
    • also look at the general setting "limitonpeers=yes" and "notifyringing=yes" etc.


    The new threading model is great, but the default of 10 threads is way too low. Symptoms include total loss of audio until the channel is hung up.

    • in general section, add: iaxthreadcount = 200
    • in general section, add: iaxmaxthreadcount = 1000

    Later in also this changed due to a security issue:

    add this to iax.conf: calltokenoptional =
    add this to the [guest] user in iax.conf: requirecalltoken=no (many guests will be using old Asterisk boxes)
    In future: Upgrade the IAX peers and provide call tokens!

    zaptel turns into dahdi

    During the summer 2008 and after the release of 1.4.17 (?) zaptel has been renamed to dahdi. Since zaptel/dahdi provide timing to MeetMe this also matters for users that do not have any zapte (Digium) hardware (ztdummy vs. dahdi_dummy). Also the zaphfc module for the HFC-S ISDN cards is affected. See

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  • 05/15/15--13:29: VOIP Service Providers
  • For a list of VOIP to PSTN service providers, indexed by country, please see:


    VOIP provider services, exchanges and other business deals belong under VOIP Service Providers B2B

    Please keep your entry in ALPHABETICAL ORDER in relation to the other entries in your section.
    If you add a new entry, including an 'added on dd/mmm/yy' would make it easier to notice.

    Miscellaneous VOIP related services, including peer-to-peer services, are listed below.

    Peer to Peer Service

    • ALTOTELECOM - AltoTelecom is a USA based VoIP company provides VoIP services for Call Centers, hotels, small and large business using a PBX or an Asterisk based predictive dialer such as Vicidial or Goautodial for telemarketing sales, rates under 1 cent per minute (0.008) to USA, Canada and UK
    • 2 - Tel2 - UK based Feature-rich VoIP provider with FREE signup and UK and European DIDs. Asterisk friendly ITSP with support for both the SIP and IAX2 protocols. Offer a host of services including call recording, web and video conferencing and collaboration services, faxmail (+ T.38 passthru), locate me, Smartphone and Desktop Apps and more. We offer all UK landline and tollfree numbers. Suitable for all users from residential, business through to large call centres. Wholesale and reseller programs and a white label 'Telco in the Cloud' product available. Lowest Rates. Save with calling bundle rates of 0.6p for landlines, 2p for Mobiles. 40+ countries at 1p/min. ...

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  • 05/15/15--13:55: DID
  • Direct Inward Dialing Number (Also known as DID or DDI)

    DID (DDI) Background

    Most businesses have several incoming telephone numbers used for specific purposes. For example customer service, sales, etc. Some have an individual telephone number for each user in the system. In a home setting on the other hand, each telephone number comes in on a different pair of wires typically. This is not practical in a business environment that has many telephone numbers.

    Why was DID actually Created?

    So DID ("direct inward dialing") was invented as a way to re-use a limited number of physical phone lines to handle calls to different published numbers. In a business with DID, the phone company uses DID signalling to identify the number they are about to connect to the business's PBX. Historically, this was done by pulsing the last 3 or 4 digits of the number being dialed before connecting the number. The PBX would use these DID digits to switch the call to the right recipient.

    In modern PBX's, typically, digital methods (example: PRI) are used to do the same thing, ie. supply the "called party" information. But many business's still have old PBX's which use the analog signalling I mentioned before. The type of telephone lines used for analog DID are different than regular home telephone lines. Usually, battery voltage is supplied by the business PBX instead of the telco. Also, the telco signals a new call by bridging the line instead of by ringing the line. The receiving PBX signals back that it's ready to take the call by momentarily reversing polarity of the voltage on the line (this is called "winking" the line)

    Old Fashion Way: (PSTN WORLD)

    Direct Inward Dialing is used when your PBX telco connection allows direct dialing to extensions within a PBX, using physical lines (or channels on a PRI) on a shared basis. DID service consists of identifying the "called party" by using DTMF or by digital means, before connecting each call. The service can be sent over an E&M Wink T-1 as DTMF and also as D-Channel information on a PRI.

    On a PRI connection, the telco can send only the digits that differ between the group number and the extension (often four digits) or the whole number - it depends on the connection to the telco.

    DID (DDI) in the new VOIP World

    Let's say you buy a phone line from Vonage or some other phone service provider who offers phone service over broadband. The number that they provide to you, in technical terms is a DID number. This is the number that they have assigned to you to connect you to the old PSTN Networks around the world. Any service provider who wants to offer a phone service over IP address, needs to buy DID numbers from his CLEC or any other large service provider like Level 3 in the United States or go to a consortium (company that will take large blocks from many providers and hand them out one at a time)

    If you are using an IP PBX like Asterisk, and you want to connect yourself to PSTN so people can call your office, you can either

    1) Buy an Analog or E1/T1 card from Digium, OpenVox, Rhino Equipment Corp or Sangoma

    2) Buy DID number from DID service provider

    DID Service Providers, convert the analog to digital and provide these DID numbers over the Internet, with SIP or IAX2.

    Service providers such as
    Wholesale DID Numbers, BuyDIDNumber Fax ,Asterisk Supported BuyVirtualNumber

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  • 05/15/15--13:56: DID Service Providers
  • A Direct Inward Dialing service provider delivers a telephone number over VoIP protocol including SIP, IAX2 or h323. This DID Phone Number will receive calls using a sip soft phone, hard phone, or an IP PBX. The charges are charged per month, and per min, and per channel based. You do not require a hardware card in case you have a DID service provider to receive call, ie a PRI Card or a Analog Card. The call travels to you all the way over the Internet

    SMS enabled DID Providers

    • MultiTEL is providing retail and wholesale Worldwide DIDs - over 90 countries. Pick your own SMS enabled DIDs from over 40 countries. (US, UK, CA, Germany, etc). Free access to JSON and SOAP API provided along with programming samples. No contracts, pay per month, instant activation. SMS forwarded via e-mail , URL or as SMS/Text message. All calls are forwarded to SIP, PSTN or to our free Hosted PBX. Coverage and numbers always available in stock from more than 90 countries.


    • Incorpus TeleNetworks Incorpus provides DID of 50+ countries. Just visit out website and live chat with us for details. Cheap DIDs available at low costs and discounts for bulk orders. No per minute charge. Only monthly and go on
    • CarryMyNumber.comAlgeria DID /Virtual Phone Numbers at _wholesale rate@$ 4/month with free PBX with the Free forwarding to SIP, Softswitches ,Trixbox ,Asterisk or VOIP. Phone Numbers from over 70 countries available. Free PBX . Unlimited Channel numbers for call centers /Calling Card Providers__. Largest FootPrint worldwide. No Per Minute charges.
    • Provides Cheapest Algeria DID /Virtual Phone Numbers/DDI Numbers @_€ 6.95/month including free PBX. with the Free forwarding to Skype ,Gtalk , iTalkWorld, Trixbox ,Asterisk or VOIP. Phone Numbers all over the world are available. Free PBX __. Toll Free Number Available without Monthly commitments.
    • Algerian | Algeria Virtual DID numbers whole sale pricing check out today.
    • Algerian Virtual Phone Numbers € 7.50/month including free PBX. Forwarding to Skype, Google Hangouts, FreePBX, Asterisk, Voipbuster or other VoIP provider, PSTN, or with free sip account.
    • BuyDIDNumber We Provide Algeria Virtual Phone Numbers@ $ 7.99 / Month NO SETUP FEE , UNLIMITED CHANNELS available with the Free forwarding to Skype ,Gtalk , Trixbox ,Asterisk , voipbuster , iTalkWorld ,any Betamax Delmont Voip or any other ITSP . Phone Numbers all over the world are available. Free PBX . Toll Free Number Available without Monthly commitments.
    • Currently only national Algerian numbers. Also 70 other countries available. Free forwarding to our PC & Mobile apps , Our PC and Mobile Apps also work in Countries where voip is Blocked . ...

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  • 05/15/15--13:58: Asterisk CLI
  • The Asterisk command line interface (CLI) is reached by using the Linux shell command
    asterisk -r or rasterisk

    If you want debugging output, add one or many v:s
    asterisk -vvvvvr

    The Asterisk server has to be running in the background for the CLI to start.

    If you want to run a CLI command in a shell script, use the x option

    asterisk -rx "logger reload"

    For help in the CLI mode, use the core show help command (formerly help). To get help on various applications you can use in the extensions.conf config file, use the core show applications command (formerly show applications).

    General commands

    • !<command>: Executes a given shell command
    • abort halt: Cancel a running halt
    • add extension: Add new extension into context
    • add ignorepat: Add new ignore pattern
    • add indication: Add the given indication to the country
    • agent show: Show status of agents
    • debug channel: Enable debugging on a channel
    • dont include: Remove a specified include from context
    • help: Display help list, or specific help on a command
    • include context: Include context in other context
    • load: Load a dynamic module by name
    • logger reload: Reopen log files. Use after rotating the log files.
    • mixmonitor {start|stop|list}: Execute a MixMonitor command.
    • no debug channel: Disable debugging on a channel
    • originate: originate a call. ...

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    If you are using a VoIP phone system, there is a good chance you have experienced poor call quality. This article discusses the causes of VoIP call quality problems and what you can do to correct them.

    The causes of poor quality VoIP calls are easy to diagnose and correct. Your VoIP Service Provider should be able to identify and work with you to correct these problems. More importantly, these problems should not be ongoing. If your VoIP Service Provider is unable to correct your call quality problems, you need to find a different provider.

    5 Most Likely Causes of Poor VoIP Calls and How You Can Fix Them:

    1. The Problem: Jitter

    Jitter is a common problem of the connectionless networks or packet switched networks. Because the information (voice packets) is divided into packets, each packet can travel by a different path from the sender to the receiver. When packets arrive at their intended destination in a different order then they were originally sent, the result is a call with poor or scrambled audio.

    Jitter is technically the measure of the variability over time of the latency across a network. Jitter is one of the most common VoIP call quality problems.

    The Solution: Use Jitter Buffers

    A jitter buffer temporarily stores arriving packets in order to minimize delay variations. If packets arrive too late then they are discarded.

    2. The Problem: Latency

    VoIP delay or latency is characterized as the amount of time it takes for speech to exit the speaker’s mouth and reach the listener’s ear. Latency sounds like an echo.

    There are 3 types of delay commonly found in today’s VoIP networks;

    1. Propagation Delay: Light travels through a vacuum at a speed of 186,000 miles per second, and electrons travel through copper or fiber at approximately 125, 000 miles per second. A fiber network stretching halfway around the world (13, 000 miles) induces a one-way delay of about 70 milliseconds (70 ms). Although this delay is almost imperceptible to the human ear, propagation delays in conjunction with handling delays can cause noticeable speech degradation.

    2. Handling Delay: Devices that forward the frame through the network cause handling delay. Handling delays can impact traditional phone networks, but these delays are a larger issue in packetized environments.

    3. Queuing Delay: When packets are held in a queue because of congestion on an outbound interface, the result is queuing delay. Queuing delay occurs when more packets are sent out than the interface can handle at a given interval.

    The Solution: Prioritize

    Prioritizing VoIP traffic over the network yields latency and jitter improvements. Policy based network management, bandwidth reservation, Type of Service, Class of Service, and Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) are all widely used techniques for prioritizing VoIP traffic. A quality VoIP router can solve many of these issues and will result in business quality Business VoIP Phone Service.

    3. The Problem: Poor Internet Connection

    Most ISP’s are designed for web surfing and not VoIP advantages. Transporting voice packets is different and requires an additional set of internet protocols that your ISP may not be providing.

    The Solution: Business Class High Speed

    Fortunately, most of the ISP’s, including cable and DSL high speed internet providers offer business class high speed internet service that is acceptable.

    4. The Problem: Inadequate Router

    Bad equipment is bad equipment.

    The Solution: Install a Specialized VoIP Router

    This is one of the most common causes of call quality issues. Many small businesses use their internet connection for both voice and data. This is perfectly fine as long as your router has the ability to prioritize VoIP traffic.
    Without a router that is configured for packet prioritization, call quality can be impacted by the other users on your network. For example, if during a call, another user on your network downloads a large file, without packet prioritization, your call quality could be degraded. A VoIP router prevents this from happening by giving priority to voice traffic on your network.

    VoIP routers are not an expensive piece of hardware. A VoIP router for a small business ranges from $300.00 for a five person office to under $1,000.00 for a 25-person office.

    5. ...

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  • 05/15/15--14:01: Ooma vs magicJack Plus
  • Ooma and magicJack are two residential alternative VoIP services. Most VoIP providers charge a monthly fee, either based on minute usage or by a flat rate.

    Ooma and magicJack are similar services that both claim they don’t charge monthly fees. While magicJack started as a PC add-on, Ooma devices (Telo and Hub) are analog telephone adapters. The magicJack PLUS 2014 device is also an ATA.

    Where to Buy


    Both Ooma (Premier) and magicJack PLUS 2014 offer free trials. While Ooma has no direct monthly fee, there are taxes due every month that amount to about $3.50 per month. MagicJack, on the other hand, has an annual fee of $29.99.
    Each device has an initial cost. The Ooma Telo costs $199.99. The magicJack Plus’ retail cost is $49.95, which includes the first six months of service free.

    Ooma - $199.99 for Ooma Telo device, $3.50 in taxes and fees a month
    MagickJack PLUS 2014 - $49.95 initial, then $29.95 yearly, or $19.95 per year if purchased with a 5-year service plan


    Features of each device are largely comparable. 3-way calling on Ooma only comes with Premier ($119.99 a year). Certain features on the Ooma are restricted with the Ooma Hub device, such as the online phonebook.

    Both Ooma and magicJack Plus have free in-network calling. Both services have international calling at low VoIP rates.

    MagicJack PLUS 2014 Features

    • works without a computer, ATA
    • unlimited calling within US/Canada
    • call waiting, 3-way calling, caller ID
    • call forwarding
    • voicemail, voicemail to email
    • call back to the US/Canada free when abroad
    • e911
    • number porting ($19.95)
    • iPhone app

    Ooma Features

    • unlimited calling within US/Canada
    • caller ID, call waiting
    • voicemail
    • take anywhere
    • e911
    • number port ($39.99)
    • online call history

    Note on International Use

    From Ooma's FAQ:

    The Ooma system can be used anywhere there is a high-speed Internet connection. ...

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  • 05/15/15--14:03: VOIP GSM Gateways
  • What's a VoIP GSM Gateway?

    A VoIP GSM Gateway enables direct routing between IP, digital, analog and GSM networks. With these devices (fixed cellular terminals) companies can significantly reduce the money they spend on telephony, gp-especially the money they spend on calls from IP to GSM. The core idea behind cost saving with VoIP GSM Gateways is Least Cost Routing (LCR).

    Through least cost routing the gateways select the most cost-effective telephone connection. They check the number which is dialed as well as rate information which is stored in an internal routing table. Because several SIM cards and GSM modules are integrated within the VOIP GSM Gateway it is able to make relatively cheaper GSM to GSM calls instead of expensive IP to GSM calls.

    Who offers VoIP GSM Gateways?

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  • 05/16/15--11:51: VoIP Termination
  • Please add information to this page about VoIP call termination.

    What is VoIP Termination?

    VoIP call termination is used to refer to the procedures that are used for routing telephone calls from one provider to the next provider until the call has been routed to the last telephone company and has been received by the recipient. Voice termination is another term that is used for call termination. The telephone companies are also referred to as providers or carriers.

    Called Party

    The called party is the person who has received the telephone call. The end point of the route may be on the Internet or may be at a point that was reached by routing the call through the public switched telephone network. The procedures for routing the call stop when the call has been received by the recipient. The process may seem simple to individuals who do not experience problems with making telephone calls but is not so simple to individuals who make calls that will not connect such as calls to a different country.

    Calling Party

    The calling party is the person who has initiated the call and who wants to be connected to the called party. There may be problems with the telephone calls that begin on the Internet and end at a cellular phone. The sound of the voices may seem to be amplified with echoes and have a scratchy quality. The calls that are initiated with Google Voice may never connect or could be delayed.


    Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) is a term that is used to describe a call that was initiated on the Internet such as Skype calls or calls made with Google Voice. The calls that were initiated on the Internet usually end at a point that is not on the Internet. Most of the recipients of telephone calls receive the calls with a landline phone or with a cellular phone. The route may begin on the Internet but will end at a point that was reached by routing the call from the public switched telephone network (PSTN), which is the common description for call termination.

    Internet Networks

    A tier-one operator is licensed and registered to operate an Internet protocol (IP) network for Internet telephony services. Tier-one operators can handle call origination and call termination. A tier-two operator can lease services from a tier-one operator. The tier-three operators can lease services from either a tier-one or two-two operator. There are also resellers of VoIP services and wholesalers in the market. The quality of the services is not very high because of the inconsistencies in the market such as fluctuations with demand, fraud and problems with doing business on an international level.

    Call Origination

    Call origination is used to refer to telephone calls that originate from the public switched telephone network and end the route on the Internet. Call termination is considered to be the opposite of call origination because the direction of the paths are reversed. The terms are associated with the starting point of the calls, path of the route of the calls and termination point of the calls. The operators of IP telephony services can handle calls that originate or terminate on the Internet.


    The fees for services are subject to the regulations of several countries because the routes of the calls will cross over more than one country. Those countries can use legislation to control the fees for the services. Termination rates are usually very high for the countries in the Middle East and Asia. The rates are intentional high because there are more incoming calls than outgoing calls from the countries, which is caused by the diaspora effect of a migrating population.

    VoIP Termination Providers

    Please list VoIP Termination providers here in alphabetical order.

    10gea 10gea's wholesale SIP termination provides exceptional quality routes and high volume switching capacity for all types of Wholesale end users. Very competitive rates for both dialer and conversational high volume traffic on tier one routes.

    • Extremely Competitive Pricing
    • Short Duration and Conversational Routes Available
    • Experienced 24/7 Network Monitoring and Technical Support
    • Quick & easy test and turn up process

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  • 05/16/15--11:56: IP PBX
  • IP PBX is a phone system that utilizes IP communications. Traditionally IP PBX's are located on site where they can also interface to traditional telco services such as analogue phone lines. The business end users connect via IP to the IP PBX for voice service.

    What is an IP PBX?

    An IP PBX can be referred to as a lot of things: a business phone system, a unified communication system, or simply as a "PBX. ...

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  • 05/16/15--11:59: Virtual PBX providers
  • Virtual BPX is a service offering functionality of a PBX without the need to install switching equipment at the customer location. Only VOIP phones need to be installed at the customer site. This makes supporting distributed workers very easy as each requires only and internet connection and a VOIP phone. A business virtual PBX phone system can reduce your monthly phone bill significantly compared to a traditional business phone system.

    What Is a Virtual PBX?

    A PBX, short for private branch exchange, is a telephone system with the capacity to switch calls between different users on local lines while still relying on the same number of external phone lines. With a virtual PBX system, the system is posted and software based without all of the traditional hardware of a physical PBX.

    Virtual PBX Primary Function

    A virtual PBX is used by businesses in a variety of ways. Primarily, companies utilize the system as an auto-attendant to establish preset call transfer options without needing an operator or receptionist. This type of system is capable of performing tasks that include auto-attendant settings, time of day or day of week functions, or even find or follow me sequences.

    One of the most important functions of a virtual PBX system for companies is the software’s ability to establish pre-determined sequences. For example, in some businesses it may be appropriate for the phone to ring to a receptionist or operator first. If the receptionist does not answer in a predetermined number of rings, however, the call is then transferred to a secretary. Again, if the call is unanswered, it can be set to forward to an assistant. Left unanswered by these two individuals, the call can be forward to a manager or even an owner. These call settings are completely customizable and can be based on any number of sequences.

    This type of software is also able to facilitate customized answering menus and sub-menus. The system can be modified to establish appropriate dial prompts leading to a number of different departments within the business, including different sequences on different days. PBXs are used by the vast majority of businesses to establish advanced call routing services.

    Virtual PBX Cost

    A virtual PBX is a complex service; however, that doesn’t mean that it is expensive. In fact, a virtual PBX is typically more cost effective than a physical PBX. The main reason that a virtual system saves on cost is that it does not require the same investment in capital to establish or set-up the call system. Because a virtual PBX is a software or hosted system, it is typically an operational cost, or a low monthly payment rather than a large upfront investment. This aspect alone generally makes a virtual or hosted PBX a less expensive, or at least more cost effective, option compared to the traditional PBX.

    Virtual PBX Benefits

    Aside from offering an effective call system, a virtual PBX presents a number of added benefits for users. As a whole, virtual PBXs lead the industry in business communication choices. This type of system seamlessly integrates the call management system with any existing phones to affordably and effectively deliver better call management. These systems also feature several innovative call features to meet the needs of any business. These systems offer various functions including call routing, follow and find me call forwarding, voicemail notifications, call recording, and more.

    The benefits aren’t limited to the features, though. Virtual PBXs offer virtually limitless application for one or hundreds and even thousands of employees. Likewise, there is not hardware to maintain or constantly upgrade. Considering that benefit, the system is also more cost effective and generally provides for a variety of flexible billing options. The limited maintenance, web-based management, and hassle-free setup alone are often enough to convince a company to switch over to this option.

    PBXs are an important tool in any business that makes and receives nearly any volume of calls. A virtual PBX can dramatically increase the efficiency of a business by effectively managing calls. This efficiency combined with the other numerous benefits of a virtual PBX can virtually transfer the communication capabilities of any company.

    List of Virtual PBX Providers


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  • 05/17/15--14:19: VoIP Providers UK
  • This page is a list of VoIP providers in the UK (United Kingdom) including England and Scotland. Please keep this list in alphabetical order. UK VoIP service providers looking to add their services can do so in the list below. VoIP provider for UK Businesses. Sip trunk services, UK DDI's and Asterisk Support for business users and resellers. White Label fully itemised per second billing.

    1VOC - provides Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phone service to residential, mobile and business customers worldwide.Using free software on your computer or mobile device, Analog Telephone Adapters (ATA’s), IP Phones, or IP PBX’s, along with a broadband internet connection and allows you to bypass the traditional local, long distance, and international telephone carriers resulting in significant savings for both incoming and outgoing calls. 1VOC customers receive the benefits of high quality phone calls worldwide, at the lowest rates (billing per second).

    2 - Tel2 - Feature-rich VoIP provider with FREE signup and UK DIDs. Asterisk friendly ITSP with support for the IAX2 protocol. Offer a host of services including call recording, web and video conferencing and collaboration services, faxmail (+ T.38 passthru), locate me, Smartphone and Desktop Apps and more. We offer all UK landline and tollfree numbers. Suitable for all users from residential, business through to large call centres. Wholesale and reseller programs and a white label 'Telco in the Cloud' product available. Lowest Rates. Save with calling bundle rates of 0.6p for landlines, 2p for Mobiles. 40+ countries at 1p/min. Build your own Telco in the cloud under your own branding and set your own rates and create your own calling plans and bundles using our fully automated web portals.

    Andrews & Arnold Ltd provides SIP trunks, single and multiple extensions as well as SIP2SIM where a mobile phone SIM card is provided that works as a SIP endpoint that registers against your own (or their own) SIP service.

    Advancefone provides, Business Trunks | Multi Channel DID | Fax to Email | Cheap International Phone calls , Advancefone offers great low call rates to world, call using your mobile, landline phone or pc, save up to 60% on phone bills, Receive faxes in your email with our fax enabled DIDs, no extra charge or page limit for receiving faxes. please visit: Advance Phone International for more information.

    Aloha Connect Part of the Aloha Telecommunications Group, a UK National operator. Aloha Connect provides a simple platform to provision a prepaid Free SIP trunk with options to purchase DIDs (numbers) from over 50 countries. Aloha focuses purely on the quality side of the market (especially in regards to international calling).

    ALTOTELECOM Call center VoIP Provider- AltoTelecom is VoIP company that provides VoIP services for Call Centers, hotels, small and large business ideal for telemarketing sales because of the low cost of the calls, rates are under 1 cent per minute to USA, Canada and UK

    AstraQom Business Solutions include Hosted PBX, Live Answering, Computer Telephony Integrations and Business Internet. The AstraQom enterprise-grade VoIP solutions included: SIP Trunking, DID Numbers, A-Z Termination & VoIP Colocation.

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  • 05/17/15--14:30: Sip Trunking Providers
  • This page is a list of SIP trunking providers around the world. Please keep this list in alphabetical order. SIP providers looking to add their services can do so in the list below.

    Country specific pages:

    What Is SIP Trunking?

    Traditional phone calls go over phone lines, but with the rise of the internet, Voice Over IP communication systems give you much more functionality to receive a high volume of calls. This is called SIP (session initiated protocol) trunking. These services are offered by the majority of VoIP providers and can be tailor made to suit the needs of a small business all the way up to a large corporation with a gigantic workforce and everything in between.

    One of the main advantages of going with SIP trunking is that it will integrate everything from data, the internet, your video, and your voice services all into a single line. The term "trunking" is a bit dated and goes back to a time when traditional telephone services were used and it described how a wide variety of telephone users could share a much smaller pool of communication paths, thus making it a much more efficient option for businesses than getting a separate phone line for each worker. That was in the past, though, as today's SIP trunking capabilities will even allow all calls to be considered local calls and won't even require the business to have a single phone line at all.

    The Benefits of Using SIP Trunking Services

    Choosing to use a good SIP trunking service will significantly level the playing field for smaller business to compete with large corporations and appear much more professional and bigger than they actually are. For larger business, one of the main advantages is being able to much more easily maintain that local presence. Regardless of the size of the business itself, SIP trunking's biggest benefit overall is simply the reduction in cost to the company's overall expenses. This is particularly true for SIP VoIP services that are specifically crafted for a business in particular.
    • It offers very low cost calling.
    • It's much easier to scale than other options, making it very future proof.
    • SIP trunking makes moving a breeze, as you can easily take your phone number with you while moving offices or even while traveling.
    • Network outages are much less impactful, as incoming calls can easily be routed to other locations.
    • It's ideal for any sized business with at least 25 physical phones.
    • It's a fantastic choice for any business that has an international location.
    • It offers the same sort of emergency usages and will even offer enhanced 911 dialing options.

    How SIP Trunking Can Take Your Business To The Next Level

    It used to be that you had to have a PRI (Primary Rate Interface) in order to have video, voice, and data all on a single line. This was a physical device that had to be purchased separately but along with your chosen phone provider's calling plans. This is no longer the case with SIP, as it allows your provider to set up a proxy server (commonly referred to as a SIP proxy), which will provide the outgoing, incoming, and PBX calls for you. Everything is located off site and handled by a professional IT team or contractor through your provider, meaning it saves you a ton of time and money on the technical support side of the equation.

    Being temporarily shut down means simply having the SIP reroute calls to a different office and also allows you to much more easily outsource to international locations, such as with customer service centers.

    All of these benefits are much better than what traditional PSTN (public switched telephone network) have been able to provide through their services and will give your business just what it needs to take it to the next level.

    Zoom Soft is worldwide

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  • 05/17/15--16:20: PBX
  • PBX (Private Branch eXchange)

    A phone switch located at the customer's premise. A PBX comes in many sizes, from 2 lines to thousands of phone lines. Common features can include an ACD for call distribution and IVR that can process incoming phone calls prior to routing to call stations. Some PBX's support outbound dialing protocols such as autodialing, progressive dialing and predictive dialing. A PBX usually has many more features than a standard phone system.

    A Hosted PBX (sometimes called a Virtual PBX) offers similar functionality and features, but the switching is located a central location and only the phones are at the customer site.

    What is a PBX?

    A PBX, which stands for "private branch exchange," is simply a way for a telephone system to have internal switching. It's mainly made up of a variety of different telephone system branches that are linked together and allows connections to be made in between them, which causes the telephones themselves to be linked together.

    What are PBXs used for?

    A company will generally have a ton of phones, often one for each worker. Rather than getting a separate phone line for each one of these, they utilize a PBX in order to link all of their internal phones together to be used to link to the external world in a much more efficient capacity. It allows a variety of people to use just one line, which allows the company to have one phone number to connect with to the outside world.

    A PBX vs a Phone

    A PBX is not the same as a traditional phone. The numbering format is not the same, as it uses an internal numbering system specific to that business. If you're inside a PBX, you'll only need to dial a three or four digit number to make another call within the network. These are what are referred to as 'extensions.' If a person were to call into the system from outside, they'd be able to reach the person they want to speak with directly by dialing an extension after the overarching business number.

    The Main Roles of a PBX

    To ensure that resources are kept in order to keep connections in the same place.
    To create connections by acting as a switch between telephone users.
    To record any data associated with a call, such as quantities, call volume, metering, and statistics.
    To correctly terminate a call once one of the users hang up the phone.

    Functions of a PBX

    • It allows a company to have one single phone number that people can use to contact a number of different internal representatives.
    • It uses an automatic call distribution (ACD) feature, which allows calls to be distributed evenly amongst the various employees of an answering team.
    • It can provide automated call answers and provide anyone calling in with a number of menu options that'll be used to select which department or extension they want to go to on their own.
    • It allows for automated greetings that are customizable.
    • It provides a host of management features.
    • It allows providing custom music to callers that are on hold while waiting for an internal employee to answer.
    • It can be used to record separate voice messages for each extension.
    • It allows internal calls to be made in between stations.

    IP PBX

    PBXs have been around for a long time, as they were originally created during the age of landline telephone systems. Today's technology allows has made it so that PBX systems can be used by Voice over IP (VoIP) services using IP PBX (internet protocol private branch exchange).

    Before this time, PBX systems used to only be something that larger companies could have, but with the rise of the internet, virtually any sized business can afford to get the same benefits of a PBX system. Some money will have to be invested up front, but it allows smaller businesses to utilize a host of great features and also look much more professional.

    The main things that IP PBX systems bring to the table is scalability, enhanced features, and better management. Since IP PBX systems are based around software rather than physical devices, it's much easier to upgrade and move than earlier PBX systems. ...

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  • 05/17/15--16:24: SIP Trunking
  • From the SIP RFC 4904:

    A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to PSTN gateway may have trunks that are connected to different carriers. It is entirely reasonable for a SIP proxy to choose — based on factors not enumerated in this document — which carrier a call is sent to when it proxies a session setup request to the gateway. Since multiple carriers can transport a call to a particular phone number, the phone number itself is not sufficient to identify the carrier at the gateway. An additional piece of information in the form of a trunk group can be used to further pare down the choices at the gateway. As used in this document, trunks are necessarily tied to gateways, and a proxy that uses trunk groups during routing of the request to a particular gateway knows and controls which gateway the call will be routed to, and knows what trunking resources are present on that gateway.

    In an architecture where calls can be terminated on multiple gateways it is wise to consider routing the call to a destination based on some significant criteria such as cost, quality or proximity. Where a proxy has the ability to evaluate a call based on one or more of these criteria, as well as knowledge of the TDM trunk resources available, the proxy can "tag" the call using the tgrp and trunk-context values in the SIP Contact field of the INVITE. It is important to note that the tgrp and trunk-context values can only be used with a TEL URI, not with a SIP URI.

    Unlike in traditional telephony, where bundles of physical wires were once delivered from the service provider to a business, a SIP trunk allows a company to replace these traditional fixed Public Switched Telephony Network (PSTN) lines with PSTN connectivity via a SIP trunking service.

    What is SIP Trunking and how will it help my business?

    Basically, SIP Trunking is a service that provides VOIP or Voice over Internet Protocol. In other words, it is a form of communicating by transmitting telephone calls over the Internet. This communication through the Internet is done by connecting the private branch exchange (PBX) to the Internet. The Internet actually replaces the telephone trunk allowing for communication by users with both fixed and mobile telephone subscribers throughout the world.
    Your voice, data and videos are all combined into a single line with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Trunking. This allows for your local, long distance and broadband Internet service to be combined into one line. You will be able to keep your real time traffic off the internet as well as off the public switched telephone network (PSTN) as much as conceivable.

    Advantages of SIP Trunking

    The advantages of SIP Trunking over traditional telephone lines and older VOIP protocols are several:
    • Whereas before SIP you needed to carry voice, video and data over one line by using a Primary Rate Interface (PRI), the SIP Trunking eradicates the necessity for gateways of Basic Rate Interfaces (BRI), Primary Rate Interfaces (PRIs) and PSTN.
    • The provisions of incoming, outgoing and Private Branch Exchange (PBX) are made by your VOIP business provider setting up a proxy server also known as a SIP proxy.
    • Your provider also does all technical support. This saves you both time and money since you will no longer need an IT team or an IT contractor.

    SIP Trunking Saves You Money

    SIP Trunking allots lower costs without sacrificing quality. When it comes to pricing, SIP Trunks are significantly cheaper than the customary analog circuits. What is the saving? The cost of SIP trunks will range from approximately $20 to $30 per trunk, whereas the analog circuits cost roughly $30 for each circuit. There are also significant savings with charges of long distance terminations with SIP Trunks costing considerably less than TDM rates or customary analog rates. All calls are local with SIP. The result for your customers is that both incoming and outgoing calls have an area code that is local. This gives you a lower cost for your business, and your customers get a feeling of familiarity and closeness with your business. The cost of SIP calls per minute are only a fraction of a penny. In addition, SIP numbers that are toll-free are also available to you.

    Another factor that can be costly for your business is if you want to up the number of Primary Rate Interfaces (PRI) from 23 to 24 channels, you must buy a second PRI that has 24 channels. ...

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  • 05/17/15--16:55: Virtual PBX
  • Virtual PBX is a budget-friendly form of hosted VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) that usually only handles inbound calls. A virtual PBX is typically intended for small business VoIP customers with fewer than 10 employees and low-volume telephone traffic.

    What Is Virtual PBX?

    A virtual PBX is an economy-class version of hosted PBX. Hosted and virtual PBX systems are business VoIP PBX phone systems that transmit calls over the Internet as data.

    A virtual PBX offers inexpensive business VoIP telephone service to small businesses. As with a hosted PBX phone systems, a virtual PBX is owned and maintained off-site by a VoIP service provider. A virtual PBX enables a small business telephone system to access enterprise-level features such as auto attendants and voicemail. With virtual PBX small business telephone systems, small start-ups, mom-and-pop shops, freelancers, and entrepreneurs can all present a professional image to vendors, investors, and customers.

    Depending on the service provider, a virtual PBX phone system may require a separate phone service for outbound calls.

    Virtual PBX Features

    Virtual PBX phone systems offer lower costs and fewer features than hosted PBX phone services. Compared to hosted PBX small business telephone systems, virtual PBX service is limited to the most basic fundamentals of business-oriented call controls. Virtual PBX is geared toward simple inbound call-routing for SoHo offices with few personnel, small budgets, and limited calling needs. As with many hosted PBX calling services, most virtual PBX phone systems do not require a contract or term commitment.

    Standard features offered with most virtual PBX plans are:

    • Voicemail
    • Auto attendant
    • Unlimited call handling (no busy signals)
    • Call forwarding


    Virtual PBX phone systems generally:

    • Handle only inbound calls
    • Offer a limited number of extensions
    • May not include Fax over IP (FoIP) services
    • Include a set amount of free minutes
    • May not offer voicemail-to-email
    • May not include international long-distance coverage
    • May not offer Internet fax service
    • May charge extra for conference calling

    The features offered vary by virtual PBX VoIP provider. As VoIP service becomes a more common solution for small business telephone systems, many virtual PBX plan features are incorporating the more advanced features of hosted PBX phone systems. Compare plans and prices to determine the best virtual PBX solution.


    Virtual PBX phone prices depend on a variety of factors, such as the features included. Virtual PBX phone service plans can start as low as $9.95 (Grasshopper) per month.

    Virtual PBX Service Providers

    Some virtual PBX providers include:

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  • 05/18/15--09:21: VOIP Service Providers
  • For a list of VOIP to PSTN service providers, indexed by country, please see:

    VoIP and VoIP Service Providers

    What is VoIP?

    VoIP (which stands for "voice over internet protocol" and is commonly referred to simply as an internet phone) is a highly cost effective and reliable way for businesses or even homeowners to make calls across the world or even just across town. The majority of major cable companies that offer bundled internet, television, and phone services already utilize this newer technology, but there are tons of other independent companies that specialize in providing this service to their customers at reasonable rates and with tons of extra features.

    More Than Just Computers

    When people think of VoIP, they generally think of computers due to the popularity of the numerous free communication services like FaceTime and Skype, but this is truly just one aspect of what VoIP can truly offer. It is true that VoIP technology transmits voice communication that's been converted into digital data across a packet-switched network or the internet (what this means, in essence, is that a user making phone calls over high speed internet lines rather than phone lines). With that in mind, users are not confined to only using it on a computer. VoIP technology can connect through the internet using traditional telephone equipment just like a regular line. The phone itself is connected to the internet using an adaptor that's plugged straight into a home or business's internet network. Most major services offer a softphone option as well, which allows the user to use their computer directly as a telephone service. In addition to all that, VoIP providers will generally also offer mobile or tablet apps that allow their customers to make calls on the device (assuming it's connected to Wi-Fi at the time). ...

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